0002 NOTE! This copyright does *not* cover user programs that use kernel
0003 services by normal system calls - this is merely considered normal use
0004 of the kernel, and does *not* fall under the heading of "derived work".
0005 Also note that the GPL below is copyrighted by the Free Software
0006 Foundation, but the instance of code that it refers to (the Linux
0007 kernel) is copyrighted by me and others who actually wrote it.
0009 Also note that the only valid version of the GPL as far as the kernel
0010 is concerned is _this_ particular version of the license (ie v2, not
0011 v2.2 or v3.x or whatever), unless explicitly otherwise stated.
0013 Linus Torvalds
0017 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
0018 Version 2, June 1991
0020 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
0021 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
0022 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
0023 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
0027 The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
0028 freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
0029 License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
0030 software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
0031 General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
0032 Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
0033 using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
0034 the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
0035 your programs, too.
0037 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
0038 price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
0039 have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
0040 this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
0041 if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
0042 in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
0044 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
0045 anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
0046 These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
0047 distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
0049 For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
0050 gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
0051 you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
0052 source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
0055 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
0056 (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
0057 distribute and/or modify the software.
0059 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
0060 that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
0061 software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
0062 want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
0063 that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
0064 authors' reputations.
0066 Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
0067 patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
0068 program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
0069 program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
0070 patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
0072 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
0073 modification follow.
0075 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
0076 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0078 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
0079 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
0080 under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
0081 refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
0082 means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
0083 that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
0084 either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
0085 language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
0086 the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
0088 Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
0089 covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
0090 running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
0091 is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
0092 Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
0093 Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
0095 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
0096 source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
0097 conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
0098 copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
0099 notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
0100 and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
0101 along with the Program.
0103 You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
0104 you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
0106 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
0107 of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
0108 distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
0109 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
0111 a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
0112 stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
0114 b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
0115 whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
0116 part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
0117 parties under the terms of this License.
0119 c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
0120 when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
0121 interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
0122 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
0123 notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
0124 a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
0125 these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
0126 License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
0127 does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
0128 the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
0130 These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
0131 identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
0132 and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
0133 themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
0134 sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
0135 distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
0136 on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
0137 this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
0138 entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
0140 Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
0141 your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
0142 exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
0143 collective works based on the Program.
0145 In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
0146 with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
0147 a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
0148 the scope of this License.
0150 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
0151 under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
0152 Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
0154 a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
0155 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
0156 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
0158 b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
0159 years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
0160 cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
0161 machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
0162 distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
0163 customarily used for software interchange; or,
0165 c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
0166 to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
0167 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
0168 received the program in object code or executable form with such
0169 an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
0171 The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
0172 making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
0173 code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
0174 associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
0175 control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
0176 special exception, the source code distributed need not include
0177 anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
0178 form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
0179 operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
0180 itself accompanies the executable.
0182 If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
0183 access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
0184 access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
0185 distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
0186 compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
0188 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
0189 except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
0190 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
0191 void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
0192 However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
0193 this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
0194 parties remain in full compliance.
0196 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
0197 signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
0198 distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
0199 prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
0200 modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
0201 Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
0202 all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
0203 the Program or works based on it.
0205 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
0206 Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
0207 original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
0208 these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
0209 restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
0210 You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
0211 this License.
0213 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
0214 infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
0215 conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
0216 otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
0217 excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
0218 distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
0219 License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
0220 may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
0221 license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
0222 all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
0223 the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
0224 refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
0226 If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
0227 any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
0228 apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
0231 It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
0232 patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
0233 such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
0234 integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
0235 implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
0236 generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
0237 through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
0238 system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
0239 to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
0240 impose that choice.
0242 This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
0243 be a consequence of the rest of this License.
0245 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
0246 certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
0247 original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
0248 may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
0249 those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
0250 countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
0251 the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
0253 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
0254 of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
0255 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
0256 address new problems or concerns.
0258 Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
0259 specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
0260 later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
0261 either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
0262 Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
0263 this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
0266 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
0267 programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
0268 to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
0269 Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
0270 make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
0271 of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
0272 of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
0274 NO WARRANTY
0276 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
0277 FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
0278 OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
0279 PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
0280 OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
0281 MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
0282 TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
0283 PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
0284 REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
0286 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
0287 WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
0288 REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
0289 INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
0290 OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
0291 TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
0292 YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
0293 PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
0294 POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
0296 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
0298 How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
0300 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
0301 possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
0302 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
0304 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
0305 to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
0306 convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
0307 the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
0309 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
0310 Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
0312 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
0313 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
0314 the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
0315 (at your option) any later version.
0317 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
0318 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
0319 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
0320 GNU General Public License for more details.
0322 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
0323 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
0324 Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
0327 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
0329 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
0330 when it starts in an interactive mode:
0332 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
0333 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
0334 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
0335 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
0337 The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
0338 parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
0339 be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
0340 mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
0342 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
0343 school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
0344 necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
0346 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
0347 `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
0349 <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
0350 Ty Coon, President of Vice
0352 This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
0353 proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
0354 consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
0355 library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
0356 Public License instead of this License.